Jinnah’s vision for a better Pakistan was quite clear: he wanted the new country to be a democratic welfare state adhering to the rule of law, good governance, emancipation of women and tolerance vis-à-vis minorities. Unfortunately, his vision for a better Pakistan got blurred and was not transformed into a reality because of his demise a year after the creation of the country and the failure of his successors to follow his directions. Unity, faith and discipline, which was an important message of Jinnah was forgotten with the passage of time and the culture of patronage, corruption and nepotism permeated in the societal and state structures of Pakistan.
At a time when Pakistan is celebrating its 67th independence anniversary, one needs to examine why the country drifted away from Jinnah’s vision for a better Pakistan and how one can expect ordinary people and those at the helm of affairs to transform Pakistan from a failing, to a successful and vibrant state. Economic breakdown, energy crisis, absence of the rule of law, rampant corruption, nepotism, intolerance, violence and terrorism and low quality of life of people are the major challenges faced by Pakistan today. The culture of greed and sycophancy seem to have become an acceptable way of life. Perhaps, Jinnah didn’t visualize that in the coming years, Pakistan would deviate from the path which was set by him and transform as a state viewed by the world as instable, corrupt and violent.
Vision for a better Pakistan, as articulated by Jinnah, needs to be modified in the light of new realities. Eight important characteristics of vision for a better future of Pakistan which can certainly bring a positive and qualitative change in the country are: i) providing compulsory and good quality education to all the school-going children of Pakistan regardless of their economic or social background, ii) providing the youths of Pakistan better employment opportunities without compromising on merit, iii) emancipation of women and utilizing their talent in a productive manner, iv) focusing on human development, particularly by building modern infrastructure, enhancing per capita income and gross domestic product, v) enforcing the rule of law and writ of the state, vi) eradicating corruption and nepotism at all levels by inculcating better work ethics and promoting tax culture, vii) upholding of merit and accountability in all the professions, viii) providing access to basic utilities, particularly clean and safe drinking water, electricity, gas, efficient and affordable public transport to the people of Pakistan, ix) following a policy of self-reliance by depending on national resources instead of seeking foreign aid and assistance, and x) an independent foreign policy which can rehabilitate self-esteem, honor, dignity and sovereignty of the country.
The characteristics mentioned above cannot be achieved unless a practical methodology is formulated by the national leadership of Pakistan with clear vision, commitment and dedication. One cannot expect Pakistan, which has gone downhill over the past several decades and is considered as a failing state, to seek positive transformation in the mode of governance unless there is a change in the way of life. Attitudes and behavior of people and those who wield power must change by pursuing an approach which gives preference to national interest instead of personal interests. Efficiency, honesty, tolerance, moderation and a sense of accountability, if inculcated in the behavior and attitude of the people, can go a long way in pulling the country out from the brink of predictable disaster.
How it can be done and what are the impediments to transform the vision of better Pakistan into a reality requires a major change in mindset of those who matter. Certainly there is no shortcut to achieve ten characteristics particularly when there is no dearth of talent, enterprise and hard work in Pakistan. In other countries also, where the challenges of human development, human security, corruption and nepotism were rampant, have progressed well and are better off today because of their leadership which provided their people a sense of direction for a better way of life.
The foremost impediment to achieve the goal for a better Pakistan is the mindset of the people and not just those who are in position of power. To a large extent, such a mindset is negative, less knowledge friendly, inward, authoritarian and accepts corruption and corrupt practices. Unlike societies, where the traditions of enlightenment, freedom, accountability and best practices in research and development shaped policies, in Pakistan, and for that matter in many post-colonial states, a major impediment for a better way of life has been the lack of ownership in terms of being responsible for protecting national assets. If analyzed historically, the British managed to colonize and control a huge landmass from the borders of Afghanistan to Myanmar and from the borders of Nepal to Sri Lanka for more than one century and with hardly 30,000 force because of internal divisions and the culture of greed among local people? When the British rule ended in August 1947 in the Indian sub-continent, its legacy remained, particularly in the new state of Pakistan where tribal-feudal culture based on patronage and power remained intact. That culture is considered as a major impediment for a better Pakistan.
On May 18, 2011, the New York based Asia Society released its study on “Pakistan 2020 – Vision for building a better future.” The study compiled by a group of eminent American and Pakistani experts examined in detail issues faced by Pakistan and suggested a road map to build a better Pakistan by the year 2020. Seven core issues which were considered essential by the study along with the suggestions for a better Pakistan were: strengthening democratic institutions, strengthening the rule of law, improving human development and social services, especially in health and education, developing the energy infrastructure, assisting the victims of the 2010 flood in their recovery, improving internal security and advancing peace process with India. The study also argued that, “preventing Pakistan from further deterioration will require a sustained, long term commitment from the government of Pakistan, the United States and other international stakeholders to promote genuine reform in the coming decade.”
Political parties, whether in the government or in the opposition will have to change their mindset by playing a leadership role for the development and progress of the country, instead of engaging in political squabbling and rhetoric with each other. Unfortunately, to a large extent, political parties are run without a professional approach. Lack of accountability in the rank and file of political parties followed by the absence of commitment to solve the issues at the grassroots’ level is a major obstacle to transform Pakistan as a success story..
Till the time, criminalization of politics is eliminated and a civilized culture of political behavior is established, Pakistan will continue to face a huge credibility gap and crisis in the functioning and performance of political parties. Pakistanis also must realize that their social backwardness, low quality of life, societal violence and economic predicament has much to do with their own failure to inculcate habits which are responsible, honest, knowledge friendly and conform to proper work ethics. If bad governance, corruption, nepotism, inefficiency, intolerance and militancy are common in Pakistan then it is a reflection of the attitude and behavior of people which conforms to the feudal and tribal culture. The reason why the military usurped power four times (1958, 1969, 1977 and 1999) was primarily because of mediocre or below mediocre political leadership which failed to put its own house in order.
Those holding positions, particularly of vital responsibilities must make sure that they formulate and implement policies which can eradicate corruption and mobilize resources for providing good quality of life to people. The elimination of VVIP culture is the most essential requirement on the part of elites who must make sure that they are not above the law and will prevent the wastage of national resources for personal patronage and benefits. Ironically, no government in Pakistan, whether civilian, military or quasi military has been able to refrain from practicing and promoting VVIP culture. With 140 billion dollars of foreign and domestic debt, low per capita income, huge shortage of energy resources, acute poverty, illiteracy, severe unemployment, periodic acts of violence and terrorism and lowest in human development index, Pakistan is in deep crisis and its elites must act in a responsible manner in order to prevent its transformation from a failing to a failed state.
Is it not true that three major adventures which caused Pakistan a great deal of harm and damaged its position happened when the military was at the helm of affairs or had a dominant role in matters of statecraft? Operation Gibraltar, which was launched in the summer of 1965 to support what was perceived as Kashmiri uprising by sending forces across the ceasefire line was a fiasco and led to the outbreak of September 1965 Indo-Pak war. “Operation Search Light” which was launched on March 25, 1971 to suppress what was called anti-Pakistan elements in the then East Pakistan led to the dismemberment of the country and the emergence of Bangladesh. The Kargil operation in the winter of 1998-99, which was launched during the second term of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif aimed to capture strategically located heights of Kargil and Drass mountains across the line of control for tactical reasons was a source of great embarrassment to Pakistan because it miscalculated the Indian response and finally had to agree to New Delhi’s terms that Pakistan withdraw its regular and irregular forces from such heights. Furthermore, as a result of Kargil crisis, the atmosphere of Indo-Pak goodwill and amity which was created as a result of the then Indian Prime Minister Atal Vehari Vajpaee’s visit to Lahore in February 1999 was vitiated and the two nuclear armed neighbors were at the brink of a war. It was the result of the mediation of the then U.S. President Bill Clinton when Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif visited Washington on July 4, 1999 that war in South Asia was averted. It means, military needs to rethink its policy of adventures, both outside and inside the country.
The new government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is facing the daunting task of dealing with issues which are critical in nature. The government must enforce economic and educational emergency so that performance of factories, industries, financial and educational institutions is improved. Likewise, the rule of law needs to be enforced by de-weaponizing Pakistan and exercising zero tolerance against those who are found in acts of violence and terrorism in the country. Without political will and determination on the part of those who matter, the vision for a better Pakistan, as articulated by Jinnah cannot be transformed into a reality.
The writer is Professor of International Relations at the University of Karachi and Director, Programme on Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.
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“Preventing Pakistan from further deterioration will require a sustained, long-term commitment from the government of Pakistan, the United States and other international stakeholders to promote genuine reform in the coming decade,” this observation is made by the Asia Society in its recent study titled “Pakistan 2020 − A vision for building a better future”.
Education key to economic growth
The Asia Society report assesses the myriad political, economic and security challenges facing Pakistan today and provides a set of recommendations for how the country can begin to pave a prosperous path toward peace and stability in the coming decade. While acknowledging that the security situation in Pakistan has linkages with the ongoing war in Afghanistan, this report focuses primarily on Pakistan’s internal crises and offers a roadmap for establishing stability along with a sustainable democratic order. The research underlines that though Pakistan’s vibrant civil society, relatively open media and the rise of an independent higher judiciary provide some glimmer of hope, poor economic and development indicators coupled with worrying demographic trends pose serious challenges to the well-being of millions of Pakistanis.
It points out that energy shortages have worsened in recent years and the destruction caused by the floods of 2010 has exacerbated the country’s many strains. “In short, how Pakistan manages these challenges in the coming years will have great consequences for its future prospects”, the study maintains. The research indicates that in Pakistan, there is a growing consensus about the need for reform, but the resources and will that are required to plan, support and implement such an agenda remain elusive. In this context, the role of private and public sector media in preparing Pakistani society and the state for competition in the global economy and in creating a culture of innovation cannot be overlooked, it adds.
The study focuses mainly on seven core issues that are essential to realising a sound future for the country by 2020: (1) strengthening democratic institutions; (2) strengthening the rule of law; (3) improving human development and social services, especially in health and education; (4) developing the energy infrastructure; (5) assisting the victims of the 2010 flood in their recovery; (6) improving internal security; and (7) advancing the peace process with India.
Need to invest $5b in energy production
Though the research has given several recommendations to improve the social, political and economic landscape of the country, but this article is confined to worsening energy crisis. In the study, experts have pointed out that Pakistan faces chronic infrastructure challenges when it comes to energy sources. In addition to nurturing social and political instability, Pakistan’s poor energy infrastructure imposes enormous economic costs in the form of unemployment and loss of revenue. An uninterrupted supply of energy to fuel the national economy should be the highest priority for Pakistan’s economic managers. To meet its current and future energy demands, the government of Pakistan should invest a minimum of $5 billion in energy production by 2020.
Kalabagh Dam vital for country’s future
In addition, it underscores that with proper upkeep and maintenance of existing hydropower dams, more dams are needed to meet current and future energy requirements in Pakistan. This can be achieved by directing investments toward the construction of a very small number of large dams (Kalabagh dam is one project that has been stalled) or a larger number of small reservoirs. At the same time, these plans must be integrated into a broader strategy to improve water resource management throughout the country. It also highlights that Pakistan can dispel the impression that big dam projects will benefit only larger provinces by exploring ways to reach a consensus among all provinces on its water infrastructure and providing provinces with legally binding guarantees. It states that energy efficiency in Pakistan can be improved if government-owned power generation infrastructure is refurbished technologically and power infrastructure is upgraded with a modern efficient grid. Foreign donors can play a key role in building Pakistan’s energy capacity by providing expert advice to the public and private sectors in Pakistan on energy development and management.
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